Detail buku

No BukuT.IPB.2003.06
PenulisRusman Heriawan
PembimbingDr. Ir. Hermanto Siregar, MEc.
AbstrakABSTRAK INDONESIA : Tidak ada ABSTRAK INGGRIS : Tourism is an important and strategic sector for the Indonesian economy. The sector has been growing for the last two decades to enhance its contribution to the GDP, employment, regional and local economy was introduced to provide substansial opportunities to utilize tourism as a mechanism for national development. As a service-based sector, tourism is also considered to be a vehicle of converting the manufacturing economy to a service economy which makes the delivery of the product rather than the creation of the product the most important thing. According to the Indonesian Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) 2003, total economic transaction created by tourism activity in 2003 reached Rp 129.5 quintillion, consists of domestic tourist transaction Rp 70.9 quintillion or 25.64 percent. It means that tourism performance in Indonesia has been more contributed by domestic tourist rather than international tourist. In other words, the tourism progress that had merely measured by the increase of the number of interntional tourist arrivals is not complete yet, but must be completed by the trend of the number of domestic tourist and their expenditure. This condition will also bring the policy implication of tourism from international market orietation to more domestic market. To measure economic impact of tourism as objective of this resseacrh, an I-O and SAM approach was implemented. In 2003, tourism contributed 5.30% of GDP, 7.94% of total employment, and created a surplus of travel balance of US$ 1.12 billion. Sectorally, the biigest output in response to the tourism demand was generated by manufacturing sector 24.3% of the total tourism economy, followed by restaurant 8.4% trade 8.3% and domestic flight 8.1%. Regarding the tourism competitiveness, Indonesia only had a good position in price competitiveness index, rank 8, while position for the other indices such as infrastructure index, environment index, human tourism index, was very low rank. Offering a cheaf price to invite more torist is no longer popular. Price is important, but people will more consider the other issues like infrastructure condition, sosial environment, and political stability before they visit a country of destination. From the analysis, we found the tourism sector was strong enough in creating GDP ( progrowth) and employment (pro labor) but less spirit in making a better income distribution. In other word. Tourism has not attached the poor (pro poor tourism) whoch is mostly belong to the agriculture and rural households. Study on tourism policy, we identified that institation amd regulation reforms have significantly increased the tourism economic performance (progrowht), while expansion of private investment made a better welafare distribution (proequity). To make this sector more competitive, improvement of the tourism management and coordination and reduction of the tourism related local tax items should be priority in near future.