Detail buku

No BukuT.LN.09.23
UniversitasFlinders University of South Australia
PenulisOuceu Satyadipura
PembimbingDr. Gour Dasvarma
AbstrakABSTRAK INGGRIS : FEMALE labour force participation rates in Indonesia in the last 30 years have increased sharply in modern sectors and skilled jobs. However women�s participation in the labour force is still considered as one of the most critical challenges for the development in Indonesia. Most of the women have weak labour market position and low salary, which influence the household income and household poverty level. In contrast, the conventional relationship between women�s participation in the labour force and poverty appears to be inversely related meaning that higher labour force participation by women should lead to a reduction in the level of poverty. The purposes in this study were to identify the factors influencing female labour force participation, and to observe the relationship between female labour force participation rates and household poverty rates in Papua province, Indonesia 2007. This study used the National Socioeconomic Survey of Indonesia (SUSENAS) 2007 dataset as main data. The unit for analysis of this study was women aged 15-64 years in the labour force in Papua province, Indonesia 2007, based on a sample of 6,415 respondents of women aged 15-64 years. This study also used a descriptive analysis to measure the central tendency and dispersion on the data, bivariate analysis such as cross tabulation and chi-square to measure the inferences of population means of the data, and a binary logistic regression as multivariate analyses to measure, explain and predict the degree of relationship among the variates. The results of this study revealed that demographic, socio-cultural and economic factors have a significant influence on women�s employment in Papua province. In terms of demographic factors , the bivariate analysis suggests that age of the woman has the highest association to employment compared to her marital status and number of children. A strong relation was also observed for women�s education and their place of residence on women�s employment. Household headed types and household expenditure factors also have an important role on influencing women�s decision to join the labour force. By using a multivariate analysis, such demographic, socio-cultural and economic variables have shown a strong significant influence on female labour force participation in Papua province. The findings of the multivariate analysis result suggested that those women aged 15-64 in Papua province, who are older, who have fewer children, who are ever married, who have lower education levels, who live in rural areas, who come from women-headed family type, and come from family which live below poverty line, share a higher probability to join the labour force than others. In terms of poverty thirty seven percent of women in Papua province live in the families which cannot provide to 2,100 kilo calories per person per day. By using logistic regression coefficients, it is predicted that women aged 15-64, who have higher education, who live in urban areas, who come from small family size, and who have a job, share a higher probability to avoid poverty. Moreover, by using an Indonesian national poverty line for Papua province (2,100 kilo calories or U$$ 0.75 per-day per-person), the analysis also suggests that women�s employment have a significant effect on household poverty reduction either for couple-headed households or for woman-headed households. The Indonesia national poverty line for Papua province 2007 (U$$ 0.75 per-day per-person) is based on the ability of each person to afford the minimum necessity of 2,100 kilo calories per person per day. The author recommends that to strengthen the national or regional policies to encourage women to participate in higher education level, since more than 30 percent of women aged 15-64 never attended school and at the same time they have the highest labour force participation rate with very low wage rates. The policy can be implemented by increasing the wage level of workers and strongest the free basic eduation cost policy. It is recommended that the government must focus on rural areas as the first priority of economic development and increase the minimum wage for women, so that the poverty of women in Papua would reduce. In terms of poverty reduction, a pro-woman labour policy must be introduced to encourage greater women�s participation