Detail buku

No BukuT.LN.08.16
UniversitasFlinders University of South Australia
PenulisDiah Ikawati
PembimbingDr. Gour Dasvarma
AbstrakLampung is a province which has a large of agricultural production in Indonesia and indeed in the world. However, this has apparently not brought any economic prosperty to the Lampung society. More Surrisingly, Lampung has faced a serious challenge as the 8 th poorest province in Indonesia. In line with these facts, this study has attempted to analyse the changes in poverty and inequality from 1996 to 2006, the years ecompassing the economic crisis. Data used in this study are taken from the consumtion data of Lampung Province in 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2006 collected at household surveys, as parts of the National Socio-economic Survey (SUSENAS) conducted by the Indonesia Central Board of Statistics (BPS). Two levels of analysis, namely, bivariete and multivariate analysis are applied to analysis the impact of economic growth and its redistribution to the poverty reduction. The bivariate analysis found that the economic of Lampung depends too much on the agricultural sector. This was very unfortunate, because the economic crisis of mid 1997 compounded with the ET Nino disaster has swept away the province�s good performance in the agricultural sector, which has indirectly led to an increase in the poverty rate after the economic crisis. From other studies on Lampung, it has been found that the number of people who fell below the poverty line in 1999, after the economic crisis, continued to increase in both the urban and areas. Moreaver, the poverty gap index and poverty severity index show that the condition in the rural areas was worse than that in the urban areas. Similar patterns were found to be true event three years after the erisis. Even though there was an improvement in the economic condition of Lampung society, as indicated by the decreasing number of people falling below the poverty line, the condition in the rural areas became worse than in the urban areas. In contrast, the increase of fuel prices in 2005 contributed to worsening conditions of the urban society in 2006. The poverty gap index and poverty severity index in the urban areas were much higher than those in the rural areas. Futhermore, the multivariate analysis using a regression model decopose the impacts of economic growth and its redistribution to poverty reduction shows that the patterns of poverty reduction in Lampung have fluctuated over the period 1999-2006. In the first there year period (1996-1999), both urban and rural areas have experienced the impact of economic crisis. However, the impact was worse in rural areas than in urban areas. Furthermore, in the period 1999-2002, Lampung has successfully improved itseconomic condition, with a decrease in the poverty rate, in both the urban and rural areas. However, the condition in rural areas was still the same as in the previous three year period. Interstingly, the opposite direction happened in the next four year period (2002-2006). The rural areas were more economically developed than the urban areas and the redistribution of that growth was more uniform in the urban areas. The results presented in this study highlight the critical need to set up a short term and medium term poverty alleviation strategy. In the short term strategy, the Government of lampung could continue giving micro credit or subsidy to the poor people. However, there should be a clear strategic planning and a good coordination between one program to another to avoid misallocation budget and wrong targeting. Moreover, the economic growth should be increased as well as keeping that growth to be distributed uniformly in urban and rural areas. However, the poverty alleviation program could not be sustained without accompanying by medium term strategy. The policies need to be adjusted to be pro-poor to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, such as providing the poor with employment opportunities, redistributing land for the landless or near landless people, giving to improve the society skill in agriculture, introducing appropriate agricultural technology, and improving access to credit and infrastructure so they can purchase agriculture inputs and get more profit. The policies also need to promote the small and medium enterprises and support the service sectors that have close links with progress in industry and agriculture. Moreover, the government of Lampung should also guarantee a minimum wage according to the local conditions in order to make sure that the poor workers will have adequate income to afford their basic needs. If the Government of Lampung Province implements these suggestions, it would not be impossible for Lampung to get out of the poverty trap in the future