Detail buku

No BukuT.LN.98.01
UniversitasFlinders University of South Australia
PembimbingProf. Graeme Hugo
AbstrakABSTRAK INGGRIS : This thesis aims to assess inequalities in regional development and the relationship between level of regional development and provincial variations in the incidence of poverty between 1980 and 1996. While many studies in regional development have emphasized the economic performance of the country, this study attempts to address the nature of Indonesian regional development based on aggregate measure at the provincial level including economic, social and demographic indicators and by use of the Coefficient of Spatial Variation. This will be followed by a discussion about the relationship between regional development and poverty. The favourable economic growth, socio-economic development and industrial transformation that the country has enjoyed is not without problems. The more pressing problems during more then two decades of Indonesian development during the New Order era are a persistent imbalance in regional development between Java and outside Java and outside Java and between the western part of Indonesia, and the persistent prevalence of poverty. The pattern of regional development in 1980 and 1996 seemed to be quite similar, in which a high imbalance in regional development has been in the distribution of per capita income in terms of per capita RGDP (regional gross domestic product ), industrial development, infrastructure development, population distribution, and level of urbanization. The education sector emerged as the best performer in terms of the lowest level of inequality between the provinces. In terms of the interprovincial comparison, a great imbalance occurred between development in Java-Bali and the outer island and between the western and eastern parts the western region at the domination of provinces in Java-Bali and other provinces in the western region at the top ranks of the level of region development. Among the provinces in the eastern region, North Sulawesi emerged as the only province which was able to compete with other developed provinces in the western part of Indonesia. Furthermore, this study also found that provinces in the lower ranks in 1980 tended to remain in the lower position in 1996, despite experiencing significant improvements in regional development. As inequalities in regional development persisted, differentials in the provincial incidence of poverty also emerged. Prior to 1980, the incidence of poverty was much more severe in Java-Bali. However, by 1996 there was a geographical shift in the incidence of poverty from Java-Bali to the outer islands with provinces in the eastern part of Indonesia recording the worst conditions. Results of correlation analysis show that rapid declines in the incidence of poverty between 1980 and 1996 were closely associated with substantial improvements in the major economic, social and demographic development indicators. This is reflected in the extent of the relationship of most indicators with poverty, which became stronger in the period 1980-1996, with most variables showing a significant correlation with the incidence of poverty in 1996. Results of regression analysis found that the fertility level and literacy rate are the most important factors in explaining variations in the incidence of poverty among provinces. A highly significant association between the absolute changes in the level of regional development as measured by changes in value of the Z-scores and the relative changes in the incidence of poverty is evidence of the likely impact of regional development on poverty reduction. This study also found that in 1996 some provinces in the eastern part of Indonesia including West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Irian Jaya with a high incidence of poverty, also had low levels of development.